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BCRC Number: 14542
Organism: Paraclostridium bifermentans subsp. bifermentans
Synonym: Clostridium bifermentans
Author: (Weinberg and Séguin) Kutsuna et al.
History: << ATCC (Clostridium bifermentans) << I. C. Hall 76
Other Collection No.: ATCC 638
Taxonomy : --B000224,B000225,B000226,B000227;
Category: anaerobe
Growth Conditions: 37°C
Biosafety Level: 1
Oxygen Requirement: Anaerobic
Type Strain: YES
    Reference: B1,B1829,B000226
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Sasi, J. T. S., L. Tushar, C. Sasikala, and C. V. Ramana. 2016. Paraclostridium benzoelyticum gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from marine sediment and reclassification of Clostridium bifermentans as Paraclostridium bifermentans comb. nov. Proposal of a new genus Paeniclostridium gen. nov. to accommodate Clostridium sordellii and Clostridium ghonii. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 66: 1268-1274.
Oren, A., and G. M. Garrity. 2016. Notification list. Notification that new names and new combinations have appeared in volume 66, part 3 of the IJSEM. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol . 66: 2126-2128.
Kutsuna, R., T. Miyoshi-Akiyama, K. Mori, M. Hayashi, J. Tomida, Y. Morita, K. Tanaka, and Y. Kawamura. 2019. Description of Paraclostridium bifermentans subsp. muricolitidis subsp. nov., emended description of Paraclostridium bifermentans (Sasi Jyothsna et al., 2016), and creation of Paraclostridium bifermentans subsp. bifermentans subsp. nov. Microbiol. Immunol. 63: 1-10.
Garrity, G. M. 2019. List of changes in taxonomic opinion no. 30. Notification of changes in taxonomic opinion previously published outside the IJSEM. Int. J. Syst. Evol. Microbiol. 69: 1850-1851.
Skerman, V. B. D., V. McGowan, and P. H. A. Sneath. 1980. Approved lists of bacterial names. Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. 30 : 225–420.
McCoy, E., and L. S. McClung. 1936. Studies on anaerobic bacteria. IX. Antigenic relations of Clostridium bifermentans and Clostridium centrosporogenes. J. Bacteriol. 31: 557-568.


0.025% Resazurin solution4.0 mL
1N NaOH25.0 mL
Agar (if necessary)20.0 g
Cysteine·HCl0.5 g
Distilled water1.0 L
Ground beef (fat free)500.0 g
Hemin solution (see below)10.0 mL
K2HPO45.0 g
Trypticase peptone30.0 g
Vitamin K1 solution (see below)0.2 mL
Yeast extract5.0 g
Mix meat, water and NaOH and bring to a boil with stirring. Cool to room temperature, skim fat from surface, and filter, retaining both meat particles and filtrate. To filtrate, add sufficient distilled water to restore volumn to 1.0 L. To this filtrate, add trypticase peptone, yeast extract, K2HPO4, resazurin solution and agar (if necessary). Boil and cool medium under 80% N2, 10% CO2, and 10% H2, then add Cysteine-HCl, Hemin solution and Vitamin K1 solution. Adjust pH to 7.0. Anaerobically dispense 7 mL into tubes containing meat particles (1 part meat to 5 parts fluid) under the same gas phase.
Hemin solution:
Dissolve 50 mg hemin in 1mL 1N NaOH, make up to 100 mL with distilled water. Store refrigerated.

Vitamin K1 solution:
Dissolve 0.15 mL of Vitamin K1 in 30 mL of 95% ethanol and filter sterile. Keep Vitamin K1 solution under refrigeration. Store in brown bottle.

'Lab-lemco' powder10.0 g
Peptone10.0 g
Cysteine·HCl0.5 g
NaCl5.0 g
CH3COONa3.0 g
Soluble starch1.0 g
Glucose5.0 g
Yeast extract3.0 g
Agar0.5 g
Distilled water1.0 L
Adjust pH to 6.8. Bring to the boil to dissolve completely. Autoclave at 121°C/15 min.

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